نظریۀ «معماری جمعی» در معماری معاصر کشورهای اسلامی تحلیل و بررسی گونه‌های مختلف معماری جمعی در معماری معاصر کشورهای اسلامی بر اساس ارتباط «معمار - کاربر»

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار، گروه آموزشی معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

بیان مسئله: واژه­‌هایی همچون؛ معماری مشارکتی، معماری جمعی، معماری اجتماعی و ... به‌طورکلی به گونه­‌های مختلفی از حضور کاربر در فرایند طراحی معماری اشاره دارند هرچند که هر یک به لحاظ نوع و سطح مشارکت کاربر در فرایند طراحی با دیگری متفاوت است. بسیاری از منابع موجود در این حوزه­ها بیشتر به جنبه­‌های نظری مشارکت در طراحی پرداخته‌اند، و کمتر به نمونه­‌های بارز آن در معماری معاصر پرداخته شده است. از سویی دیگر معمولاً زمانی که صحبت از مشارکت در طراحی می‌­شود بیشتر یادآور دخالت مستقیم کاربران از طریق پرسش‌نامه، کارگاه و حتی حضور در مرحله ساخت بنا است. این تحقیق به دنبال پاسخ به این پرسش است که گونه­‌های مشارکتی معماری معاصر کشورهای اسلامی شامل چه مواردی است؟
هدف مقاله: رسیدن به طبقه‌­بندی و گونه­‌شناسی معماری جمعی در کشورهای اسلامی.
روش­‌شناسی تحقیق: در این تحقیق علاوه بر روش تحقیق کیفی، با استفاده از روش تحقیق عملیاتی-تکنیکی سعی بر این است تا بتوان با استفاده از نمونه‌های کارآمد و پاسخگوی معماری جمعی به طبقه‌بندی و گونه‌­شناسی رویکردهای آن دست پیدا کرد. شیوه گردآوری اطلاعات علاوه بر مطالعات کتابخانه‌­ای و منابع معتبر این حوزه، از طریق بازدید میدانی، مصاحبه­‌های تشخیصی و محتوایی صورت‌گرفته است.
فرضیه‌های مقاله: گونه‌­های مشارکتی تأویلی و ناحیه­‌گرا بیشتر در معماری معاصر کشورهای اسلامی استفاده می‌­شود.
نتیجه­‌گیری: معماری جمعی، دارای گونه­‌های مختلفی از مشارکت کاربر در فرایند طراحی است به‌طوری‌که بررسی نظریه­‌ها و نمونه­‌های پاسخگوی معماری جمعی نشان می‌­دهد گونه­‌های مختلفی از نحوه تعامل معمار-کاربر وجود دارد؛ این گونه­‌ها شامل: بسیج اجتماعی، مشارکت پرسش‌نامه‌ای، طراحی مشورتی، مشارکت کارکردی، مشارکت تعاملی، ناحیه­‌گرایی و مشارکت تأویلی می­‌باشند. تحلیل و بررسی معماری معاصر کشورهای اسلامی نشان می‌­دهد کاربست نظریه معماری جمعی بیشتر از نظریه­‌های مشارکتی و اجتماعی و از حیث؛ گونه­‌شناسی، بسیج اجتماعی و مشارکت ناحیه­‌گرا و تأویلی، موفق بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Theory of Community Architecture in Contemporary Islamic Architecture Assessing different typologies of CA based on “Architect-User”

نویسنده [English]

  • Hamed Kamelnia
Associate Professor, Department of Faculty of Architecture and Urban planning ,, Ferdowsi University Of Mashhad (FUM)
چکیده [English]

Terms such as “community Architecture”, “Social Architecture”, “Participatory Architecture” consider to different typologies of participation during design process phases but in these cases, level of participation differs in design process. Much research considers to on theoretical aspects of participation in architectural approaches but more recent examples consider to responsible cases.
Many of the ideas of modern community architecture take a glance to the behavioral patterns of the user, wants and needs, he will. So Through proper understanding of needs, wants and will, it is possible to build responsible environment. This is development of Habraken's theory that talks about design with and for people. The main question of this research is what is the difference among participation typologies in contemporary architecture of Islamic countries?
As an approach, participatory architecture has not been as a suitable approach for many architects because they believe the user interfere lead the project in wrong way and is a time consuming process. On the other side, some governments make seductive participation for some political aims.
When there are issues associated with the use of participatory research methods commonly used categories such as case studies, qualitative, quantitative, content analysis, etc., alone cannot be efficient alone.
Among the various theories of participation, less considered to typology of participation in practice and just some of the classical theorists like Arnstein (1969), talked about different levels of participation. In 1986, Wulz in an article, the concept of participation, compared some works of architects with participatory approach. He analyzed works of some postmodern architects such as Michael Graves and Aldo Rossi with some post structuralism architects such as Ralph Erskine, Road Hackney and Christopher Alexander.
Wulz in his article refers to some typologies of participation such as interpretative participation, regional, self-decision , etc. but he doesn’t propose clear categories about these. Another group of theorists never classified community architecture approaches so implementations did not provide a group of architectural ideas based on a typology that can be achieved.
Hence almost all theories completely theoretical basis and practical examples of the architecture has been less, even some theorist such as Hatch and Sanoff that have a practical view, don’t determine typologies.
Thus, despite the participatory architecture, community architecture, and collective architecture theories and variety of sources in these field, there is very little source about typologies of participation in practice.
Participatory research method is a new and effective paradigm to use knowledge generated by community behavior. Generally, action research (AR) is used in this research also qualitative research methods.
Many of recourses in this field talk about direct participation of user in design process and also many of cases are not outstanding in contemporary architecture literature and so just a seduce participation occurs during design. Some methods used in this kind is questioners, workshops, interview, etc. some cases consider to participation during construction phases of project (especially in developing countries).
Assessing different theories and responsible cases of community architecture shows there are seven typologies of participation:
1-social mobilization, 2-questioners participation, 3-consulting design, 4-functional participation, 5-interactive participation, 6-regional participation, 7-interpretive participation.
Base on previous , about characteristic of different participatory approaches, community architecture, participatory architecture and social architecture, the relation between approaches and typologies is:
In community architectures, the use of beliefs and rituals Symbols is considered effective and engaging people through them is understandable, interactive, interpreting and regional participation are concerned.
In participatory architecture because of systematic relationship between user and expert, reviews of the samples show the existence of such information, consultation, functional and interactive participation. Among all the types, functional participation is used more.
In social participation, involvement in the process by using social mobilization, information and consulting are done.
Different typologies of participation in architectural cases are a wide range of successful methods of participation that if far from previous consideration of typical participation in social mobilization and questioner’s methods.
Seven typologies of participation in design process shows different level and condition of participation for user and architect. Some of typologies such as interpretive participation and regional participation consider more to values and costumes and user behaviors and are more indirect. Functional and consulting participation have rational view to participation and let the user take part as it is necessary.
Questioner participation and social mobilization, today are named seduce participation (also in some cases may be useful).
Today the usage of community architecture theory in contemporary Islamic architecture is more successful than social architecture or participatory design. In case of typology, interpretative and regional participation lead to responsible built environment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Community Architecture
  • Typologies of Participation
  • user
  • Design process
  • contemporary Islamic architecture
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