نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشجوی دکتری هنرهای اسلامی، عضو هیئت علمی دانشکده هنرهای اسلامی، دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز، ایران
2 دانشیار، عضو هیئت علمی گروه گرافیک، دانشکده هنر، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Iranian rug has been manifested with artistic and visual language as a representation of visual and symbolic elements. Presence of symbolic concepts in the form of visual elements in the Iranian rug is rooted in Iranian-Islamic culture, including the prominent manifestations of Sheikh Safi rug belonging to the Safavid era. During this period, a number of exquisite rugs in the history of Iranian rug weaving have been woven such as Sheikh Safi Ardebili rug, which was one of the examples of bergamot rugs. This rug is one of the valuable rugs of Safavid history and belongs to the northwest of Iran. This artistic masterpiece like other expensive Safavid art works (especially rug weaving) is a clear representation of the ideological, intellectual and spiritual situations of that time in addition to its artistic and aesthetic value. Symbolic designs and motifs have been used in this rug that express the values, messages, and valuable meanings of the Safavid era. Sheikh Safi Ardebili rug was one of the important documents in the history of Iranian-Islamic culture and art, since the existence of symbolic visual motifs used in this rug with deep mental and intellectual support indicates the thinking and way of life of the people of the Safavid era as one of the brilliant periods of Iranian art. This rug can be considered as one of the prominent examples of using visual and symbolic elements in Iranian rug waving art. This exquisite work is a valuable collection of motifs with Iranian-Islamic concepts. In order to percept the symbolic concepts used in Iranian-Islamic arts, especially Iranian rugs, a visual reading of the visual elements of one of the two samples of Sheikh Safi Ardebili rugs (the sample in the Los Angeles City Museum) has been performed in this research. In this regard, due to the reference and artistic source of the motifs and visual elements of this rug, it has been tried to find out the original concepts of Iranian-Islamic art by studying these motifs and the basic concepts behind their formation.
Goals: The goal of this research was to identify and introduce the visual elements and motifs of Iranian-Islamic rugs according to the existing artistic masterpieces and to clarify their symbolic concepts that reveal the basis of Islamic-Iranian visual art. In this research, by examining the valuable sample of Sheikh Safi rug in the Los Angeles Museum from the Safavid era, it has been tried to introduce and study the visual elements of the motifs of this rug. In this way, we can recognize the deep intellectual support of the Iranian rug motifs that have appeared in the form of symbolic motifs.
Questions: In line with this research, the following questions have been raised: to what extent has Iranian rug, as one of the artistic forms, conveyed Iranian-Islamic symbolic elements and motifs? What are the foundations of the visual and symbolic features of Sheikh Safi rug motifs?
Research Method: This research is a historical research in terms of time and it is descriptive-analytical in terms of purpose. The method of collecting information is documentary.
Conclusion: The results showed that the growth, creativity and creation of golden examples of art works in the Safavid era, which was also the peak of Iranian rug weaving, was due to social, religious conditions and innovative views in the field of art. Presence of artistic masterpieces in various fields, including the rug itself, has testified the rise of the arts in this period. Sheikh Safi rug has a flexible and bergamot design and the structure of the text and margins, which is manifested with a coherent structure of visual elements along with the symbolic concept of the garden of eternal paradise and a manifestation of unity in multiplicity. By studying the symbolic concepts of Sheikh Safi rug motifs and their combinations way in a structure that is based on the concept of paradise gardens in Islam, it can be found that the selection of patterns and visual elements used in this rug is conscious and in line with cultural infrastructure and a Safavid ritual. The structure of this rug is derived from the concept of Minoan paradise and Iranian-Islamic Minoan garden, because the motifs of Iranian rugs indicate a transcendental world. The use of motifs with aesthetic dimensions in the appearance and structure of the rug along with special and symbolic concepts are among the features of this exquisite rug. In such a way that visual elements including elastic, bergamot and central sun or the same bergamot and candlestick are manifested in a coherent combination with their symbolic semantic load. The unique structure of the designs in this rug can be considered as the composition and unity of the designs around the axis of the bergamot, which can be achieved by using balance and bergamot maps (bergamot, elastics, and margins) in combination with other elements. The Islamic patterns movement along with the motifs of Laleh Abbasi has created a single combination around the axis of the central bergamot with a chandelier, which is a clear manifestation of unity in the multiplicity and garden of Iranian-Islamic art. The structure of the rug is visible with flowers, buds, leaves and stems as khatai motifs along with a spiral structure moving in combination with the margins that depict the uniqueness of God and express the concept of unity in plurality. Presence of a pair of chandeliers in this rug is another prominent feature of this work because chandelier motif is rooted in the importance of the concept of light in Iranian-Islamic art. The chandelier can be considered as a symbol of a means that passes the material light through the knots and heavenly patterns, so that what is seen is more similar to spiritual light. In examining the visual elements, the proportionate of the patterns in combination with the brilliant color scheme is more visible. In this rug, the design and color in a harmonious combination with each other and with a suitable arrangement in each part have caused the eyes to rotate throughout the work and have appeared to convey a single concept.