تحلیل بازنمایی مفاهیم فرهنگ و تمدن در نگاره‌ی دربار جمشید در شاهنامه‌ی طهماسبی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری تخصصی، رشته‌ تاریخ تطبیقی و تحلیلی هنر اسلامی، دانشگاه شاهد، تهران.

2 استادیار، دکترای تخصصی پژوهش هنر، گروه هنر، دانشگاه شاهد تهران

چکیده

مطالعه نسخه‌های مصور یکی از محورهای مهم پژوهش‌های فرهنگی و تمدنی محسوب می‌شود. شاهنامه‌ی طهماسبی یکی از این نسخه‌های مصور دوره‌ی صفوی است و از غنای تصویری و اطلاعات تاریخی، فرهنگی و اجتماعی ارزشمند برخوردار است. دربار جمشید نام موضوع یکی از نگاره‌های این شاهنامه می‌باشد و کیفیت پادشاهی جمشید و عملکرد او در دوران حکومتش در این نگاره به تصویر درآمده است. از آن‌جا که این پادشاه یکی از مهم‌ترین بانیان فرهنگ و تمدن ایرانی است؛ بنابراین اهمیت موضوع باعث شده است تا "تحلیل بازنمایی مفاهیم فرهنگ و تمدن در نگاره‌ی دربار جمشید در شاهنامه‌ی طهماسبی" به عنوان موضوع پژوهش مورد مطالعه قرار بگیرد. هم‌چنین شناخت کیفیت بازنمایی تصویری مفاهیم فرهنگ و تمدن در نگاره‌ی جمشید هدف پژوهش حاضر است. هم‌چنین سؤال مطرح‌شده عبارت است از: 1- مفاهیم تمدن و فرهنگ در نگاره‌ی دربار جمشید در شاهنامه‌ی طهماسبی چگونه بازنمایی شده است؟ در راستای پاسخ‌گویی به این سؤال اطلاعات کتابخانه‌ای اسنادی با رویکرد توصیفی- تحلیلی بررسی شده و متغیرهای پژوهش شامل مفاهیم فرهنگ، تمدن و بازنمایی این مفاهیم در بستر اثر نگارگری دربار جمشید در شاهنامه‌ی طهماسبی می‌باشد و نتایج حاکی از آن است که مفهوم فرهنگ بیشتر در قالب نوع پوشاک و البسه‌ی عناصر انسانی و نیز ارکان تمدن و شاخصه‌های عمومی آن در بیشتر وجوه تصویری نگاره بازنمود یافته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

An Analysis of presentation of Culture and Civilization Concepts in Jamshid Court Paintings in Tahmasp's Shahnameh

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sahar Zekavat 1
  • Khashayar Ghazizadeh 2
1 3PhD student of Islamic Art; Comparative and analytical history of Islamic art, Faculty of Art, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Art, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The study of illustrated manuscripts is an important of cultural and civilization research. Shahnama of Shah Tahmasp is one of the manuscript and masterpieces of Iranian and Persian paintings and one of the excellent and distinguished cultural and literary masterpieces of paintings art that presents a social, political, cultural and artistic structure of that period and time. The Shahnameh contains 258 images and miniatures that include the various and different scenes from the Shahnameh stories and adventures. Tahmasp's Shahnameh is one of the illustrated manuscript of the Safavid period and Shah Ismail and Shah Tahmasp period. Jamshid's court is the name of one of the paintings in this Shahnameh manuscript, and the quality of Jamshid's kingdom and its Function during his reign is illustrated in this painting. Since this king is one of the most important proponents of Iranian culture and civilization, so the importance of the subject has led to the study of "an Analysis of presentation of Culture and Civilization Concepts in Jamshid Court Paintings in Tahmasp's Shahnameh". It should be noted that in Firdausi's Shahnameh, Jamshid is mentioned as the most powerful and strong king of Pishdadi and he is son of Tahmours king. Also Jamshid king played an important and significant role in shaping and enhancing Iranian culture and civilization and this king is the first to build weapons and armaments such as armor and swords and also he has also been credited with techniques such as textiles, homebuilding, shipbuilding, medicine and precious and valuable stone mining from the mountains and the sea and metal mining. It should be added that Jamshid king tried to increase the level of health of the people and ordered them to take bath and to observe public and individual health. He has also built roads and developed Iran. In Firdausi's Shahnameh, the government of Jamshid is seven hundred years old and represents the golden age of all over the world. Therefore the purpose and goal of this study and research is to identify the quality of visual presentation of concepts and meaning of culture and civilization in Jamshid's king painting. Also in the present study this question is expressed: 1- How are the concepts and meaning of civilization and culture presented in the painting of Jamshid court in Tahmasp's Shahnameh? In order to answer this question library data and documentary information has been studied with a descriptive- analytical approach and this Research variables include the concepts of culture, civilization and presentation of these concepts in the painting of Jamshid king court in Tahmasp's Shahnameh and the results and consequences show that the concept of culture is more in the form of clothing of human elements and the basis of civilization and its general properties are presented in the most of this painting. In other words, it must be said that Jamshid king throne is placed in the center of the painting and he sits on the king's throne and this king has a magnificent and luxurious clothing and glorious crown. Also seen the images of two demons behind the king's throne of Jamshid king and they seem to be protecting the Jamshid king. It should also be mentioned that the pillars of king's throne are adorned with the motifs of giant elephants. All of the above cases emphasize emphasizes on the Leadership power, king's authority and political power and these are some of the general characteristics and basis of civilization. Also economics, economic power, and social wealth and abundance have also been portrayed as active craftsmen around the Jamshid king and a green space and garden. Inside and outside the palace and In other words the outer garden show an advanced civilization. The fourth basis of civilization is the most important subject of the painting and the fourth basis is the development of science and the development of arts by expanding various occupations and different crafts. Also it also can't be commented on Ethical and spiritual concepts. The ambiguous point in this picture is presenting a bowl full of drink to the Jamshid King. It has two meanings. In other words Jamshid king was a bacchanal and bibulous person and also these bowl drink and the variety dishes full of foods shows the abundance of blessings and very comfortable during the reign of Jamshid king. Also cannot be seen the images of the court women in the details of this painting. This subject has two meanings. Ethics and spirituality may have been preserved by the lack of Illustration of the court women. While reviewing Tahmasebi's Shahnameh paintings show that there is privacy and the motifs of women in other paintings of Shahnameh. Another reason for the lack of women motifs in the Shahnameh paintings is the Ineffective social role of women in the cultural and society space of Safavid period.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Jamshid Court, Tahmasp'
  • s Shahnameh, Culture, Civilization