عنوان مقاله [English]
Love is always considered one of the most important and fundamental themes of Iranian culture and art, and many Iranian literary works and artistic crafts throughout history are proof of this claim. This mysterious theme has shown its obvious manifestations in all types of Persian literature - from epic and lyrical to mystical and mystical - and by its nature, it has been significantly manifested in Iranian painting, which is considered the visual manifestation of Persian literature. The two most important literary treasures of Iran, Shahnameh of Hakim Abulqasem Ferdowsi and Khamse Nizami of Ganjavi, each of them in some way, in the mythological and ancient traditions that they have left for us, have paid much attention to the theme of love and expressed its beauty and difficulties. The major part of Iran's paintings, whose peak we witness in the Safavid era, are dedicated to depicting the stories of Ferdowsi's Shahnameh and Khamse Nizami. With a general look at the paintings of this era, we find out that painters have shown different approaches in dealing with the romantic themes of Ferdowsi's Shahnameh and Khamse Nizami compared to other themes.
The major part of Iran's paintings, whose peak we witness in the Safavid era, are dedicated to depicting the stories of Ferdowsi's Shahnameh and Khamse Nizami. With a general look at the paintings of this era, we find out that painters have shown different approaches in dealing with the romantic themes of Ferdowsi's Shahnameh and Khamse Nizami compared to other themes. Therefore, how these romantic images relate to the text of the Shahnameh and Khamsa, as well as the perception of Safavid era artists on the theme of love, have been analyzed and studied in this research.
Considering the importance of the relationship between the two sides of literature and illustration in Iranian painting, this research has been done with the aim of investigating and understanding the relationship between text and image in paintings related to romantic themes in Safavid era painting. In this regard, with a descriptive and analytical approach, various aspects of the subject have been discussed, and seven paintings from the Safavid period depicting romantic narratives in Khamsa Nizami (such as the story "Lili and Majnoon" and "Khosro and Shirin") and the Shahnameh. Ferdowsi (such as the stories "Rostam and Tahmina" and "Zal and Rudabah") have been selected as case studies of the research and the analysis of the relationship between text and image in each of them has been done in separate sections. The results of the investigations and analyzes presented in this research indicate that the painters of the Safavid era were largely faithful to the text of Ferdowsi's Shahnameh and Khamsa Nizami in dealing with romantic themes. In the paintings studied in this research, we often see the same characteristics that the poet used in describing the scenes, and as the romantic narratives in Ferdowsi's Shahnameh and Khamse Nizami are full of metaphors and expressive and linguistic subtleties, the paintings related to them also have these metaphors and subtleties. presented in a visual way.
The importance of dealing with issues such as Iranian painting and Persian literature is that these have greatly influenced the form and content of Iranian culture, and especially in the field of arts and industries, they have inspired many artists and craftsmen in various periods of Iranian history. In the field of graphics and illustration, the study of the relationship between text and image in Iranian painting can be effective in achieving creative ideas in the production of works based on Iranian culture. Therefore, examining the relationship between text and image in Safavid paintings can be useful in achieving this goal.
This research is among the qualitative researches and has been done in a descriptive and analytical way. The collection of research data has also been possible through library studies, searching in internet sources and viewing Safavid paintings that have romantic themes.
In general, these paintings have many subtleties and the common feature of all of them is to present a tender and endearing image of Ferdowsi and Nizami's romantic narrative. However, there are also differences in these works. Some of these differences are stylistic. In each of the different schools of the Safavid era (Qazvin school, Shiraz school, Tabriz school, Mashhad school, and Isfahan school) there are pictorial traditions and special characteristics that can be clearly recognized in the paintings studied in this research. Also, the personal attitude of some artists has had a significant impact on the formation of these images.