تحلیل تصاویر کتاب چاپ سنگی دله مختار مبنی بر نقد تکوینی (مطالعه موردی: نسخه 1330ق)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی‌ارشد تصویرسازی، موسسه آموزش عالی فردوس، هنرآموز آموزش و پرورش، خراسان رضوی، ایران

2 استاد مدعو، گروه باستان‌شناسی و تاریخ، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه دولتی نیشابور، ایران

10.30508/fhja.2023.2003434.1163

چکیده

بیان مساله: با آغاز چاپ سنگی در ایران (۱۲۴۹ق)، انتشار کتاب به ویژه در موضوعات عامیانه، رواج یافت. از نمونه‌های کتاب مصور به روش چاپ سنگی در دورۀ قاجار، داستان عامیانه دله مختار، محفوظ در کتابخانه مرکزی آستان قدس رضوی است. این نسخه در ۱۳۳۰ق منتشر و دارای ۲۳ تصویر در لابه‌لای متن داستان است. جهت دستیابی به اهداف پژوهش با بهره‌گیری از روش نقد تکوینی -که مهم‌ترین هدف آن بررسی مراحل شکل‌گیری و آفرینش اثری هنری است- تصاویر مذکور موردبررسی قرار خواهد گرفت.

هدف پژوهش: بررسی سیر تکوینی، شکل‌گیری و خلق تصاویر نسخه مذکور و واکاوی عوامل و هنجارهای تأثیرگذار (پیرامتن) و این که هنرمند تا چه اندازه متاثر از پیشامتن تصاویر (متن داستان) بوده و این عوامل به چه میزان در شکل‌گیری و خلق تصاویر تأثیرگذار بوده‌اند.

سوال پژوهش: مراحل شکل‌گیری و آفرینش تصویرسازی‌های کتاب چاپ سنگی دله مختار (1330ق) بر اساس رویکرد نقدتکوینی و نگاره ویژه بر پیشامتن مکتوب (روایت‌ها) چگونه است؟

روش پژوهش: گردآوری داده‌ها بر اساس مطالعه کتابخانه‌ای و آرشیوی، روش تحقیق توصیفی-تحلیلی و رویکرد کیفی است.

یافته‌ها: هنرمند تحت تأثیر هنجارهای اجتماعی، سیاسی، فرهنگی، مذهبی و جنگ بین سنت و تجدد در زندگی روزمره قرارگرفته و در تصاویر، خصوصاً در نوع نقاشی طبیعت‌گرایانۀ وارده از غرب، به ترسیم فیگورهای انسانی و حیوانی پرداخته و پوشش افراد را کاملاً قاجاری و متناسب با شأن و منزلت اجتماعیشان و فضایی که در آن قرار داشته اند، ترسیم کرده است. با توجه به پیشامتن، تصویرگر برای پیکره‌ها در موقعیت‌های مختلف حالت‌های روحی متفاوتی را طراحی کرده است و با ایجاد تغییرات در حالات چهره و حرکات بدن شخصیت‌ها، احساسات مختلف را به نمایش گذاشته است. در تصاویر نقش اصلی را شخصیت‌ها بر عهده‌دارند و فضاسازی‌ها محدود است. وجود رابطۀ قرینه بین متن و تصویر قابل رویت است. پیرامتن‌ها هنجارهای موجود نیز نقش مهمی در خلق تصاویر داشته‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

An analysis on illustrations of Dale Mukhtar lithographic book based on formative criticism (Case study: the version 1330 AH)

نویسندگان [English]

  • seyede sepide mojtahedi 1
  • Mostafa La’l Shateri 2
1 Master of Illustration, Ferdous Institute of Higher Education, official teacher at Ministry of Education, Razavi Khorasan, Iran
2 Visiting lecturer, Department of Archeology and History, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Neyshabur, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract



Statement of the issue: With the beginning of lithography in Iran (1249AH), the publication of books, especially on popular subjects, became popular, and this literary genre could reflect the culture and customs of the Qajar period. Based on the literature and literature on the origins of the Nabazian novels, the decision has been made. Literary works that can be based, in a decision-making way, on the meaning and concept of a better way to address the statement of Kennand. For example, in the possession of Dastan, a picture taken from the text of Dastan, send a narration from Dastan to the addressee. There is a source of inspiration between Dastan Neez Bahtrin and the creation of his ideas for the sake of his images. The existence of any relatable link between the text and the illustration of a well-illustrated book is an important matter to be noticed. In these colloquial expressions, as well as verbal literature, in folk and ethnic groups, and in the context of the hurricane of religious, social, political, sectarian, and ... the religious, social, political, and sectarian spirits of this community are different from the viewpoints and sources of an important context. For the sake of poems with phrases, etiquette, and figures of peoples in different historical periods of Danest. From the presence of these dastans in the evidence of Dara Boden imagination and Magrajoyi, the love of Wiseh in the Nazd Mardm Dashth and Darand, with the entry of the Sanji chapter in Iran, a picture of it for the books of the Pedah Pedah Kurd Ta in the general studies of its decision-making and generation and its chapter Az A commercial view is a directive pattern. Among the examples of lithographic illustrated books in the Qajar period is the folk tale of Dale Mukhtar, preserved in the Astan Quds Razavi library. This version was published in 1330 AH and has 23 pictures next to the text of the story. By examining the images of these constitutions and their creation, and the factors influencing their creation, through a formative criticism that is important to the extent that they are established in the course of any formation that has been established by more images. In the direction of this in the compositional criticism, the final text (picturesazi), the result of the integration of the Pechamton and the importance of dividing the reading may begin and at the end of this text the end of the question in the choice of the addressee of the decision to be written. These are images for the first time in this book of the decision of Gharfthand and related to the body of the book of Hstand. Ramand photographed a photograph of a photographer in Yemen, a photographer. Midhem decision.

Purpose: Examining the process of formation, formation and creation of the images of the mentioned edition and analyzing the influential factors and norms (paratext) and how much the artist was influenced by the pretext of the images (text of the story).

Research question: What are the stages of formation and creation of the illustrations of Dele Mokhtar's lithographic book (1330 AH) based on the approach of critical and constructive criticism and special writing on the written pre-text (narratives)?Research method: data collection is based on library and archival study, descriptive-analytical research method and qualitative approach.

Findings: The artist was influenced by social, political, cultural, religious norms and the war between tradition and modernity in his daily life, and in his pictures, especially in the naturalistic painting imported from the West, he drew human and animal figures, and the clothing of people was completely Qajar and According to their social status and the space they were in, different designs and decorations were used for their clothes. According to the pre-text, the illustrator has designed different moods for the figures in different situations and has displayed different emotions by making changes in the facial expressions and body movements of the characters. In the pictures, the main role is played by the characters and the space creations are very limited. The correlation between the text and the image can be seen. Paratexts and existing norms have also played an important role in creating images.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • : illustration
  • Lithography
  • Dale Mukhtar
  • Formative criticism