بررسی نقوش آجرکاری در ابنیه تاریخی منطقه قومس بر اساس مطالعات تاریخی-تطبیقی و پراکندگی منطقه‌ای

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه سمنان

10.30508/fhja.2024.2008831.1166

چکیده

آجر یکی از مهمترین مصالح ساختمانی در بناهای تاریخی ایران است که علاوه بر جنبه سازه‌ای به لحاظ تزئینی مورد توجه می‌باشد. اگرچه پیشینه استفاده از آجر به دوران پیش از اسلام و تمدن ایلام بازمی‌گردد اما استفاده از آجر به صورت تزیینی عمدتاً مربوط به دوره اسلامی و از قرن سوم هجری به بعد است. منطقه قومس (استان کنونی سمنان) یکی از مناطق پیشگام در هنر آجرکاری بوده است که می‌توان به آثار شاخص بکار رفته در بناهایی همچون مناره‌ مسجد جامع و تاریخانه؛ برج‌های پیرعلمدار و مهماندوست و چهل دختران دامغان؛ بقعه و مناره مسجدبایزید و برج کاشانه در بسطام و همچنین مناره مسجد جامع سمنان و رباط انوشیروانی آهوان و رباط سپنج اشاره کرد که همگی متعلق به عصر طلایی هنر آجرکاری در ایران (قرون 4-8 ه.ق) هستند. طی دوران مذکور، در منطقه قومس آجرکاری سیر تحولی تاریخی را میپیماید که میتوان آنرا به لحاظ تغییرات در نقش‌مایه، تکنیک اجرا، ترکیب مصالح و پراکندگی جغرافیایی بررسی نمود. هدف از این تحقیق بررسی تطبیقی نقوش و تکنیک‌های آجرکاری‌های در ابنیه تاریخی منطقه قومس و شناخت سیر تحول تاریخی آنهاست. ماهیت پژوهش حاضر توصیفی و روش تحقیق بر اساس مطالعات میدانی و کتابخانه‌ای است. طی مطالعات میدانی با استفاده از عکاسی الگوهای بکار رفته در آجرکاری‌های مهمترین بناهای منطقه مستندسازی گردید. در بخش کتابخانه‌ای علاوه بر بررسی تاریخچه ابنیه موضوع پژوهش به مطالعه پژوهش‌های پیشین حول آجرکاری در تاریخ معماری ایران پرداخته شد. نهایتاً آرایه‌های مستندسازی شده در حوزه قومس مقایسه تطبیقی شده و الگوهای مورد استفاده شناسایی گردید. بررسی پیش رو حاکی از آن است که آجرکاری‌های بکار رفته در ابنیه تاریخی منطقه قومس طی قرون 4-8 هجری به لحاظ نقش‌مایه از آرایه‌های مشخصی پیروی می‌کند که به لحاظ تکنیک اجرایی و مصالح از نمونه‌های ساده‌تر تا نقوش پیچیده‌تر در آن دیده می‌شود

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparative study of decorative patterns of brickwork in historical buildings of Qoms region (4th to 8th centuries AH)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sedighe Shokri
  • saeed moghimi
  • Vahid Heydari
  • mahdi amraei
Semnan University
چکیده [English]

The subject of the present research is related to the art of brickwork in the architecture of the Middle Ages (specifically the 4th-8th century AH) in the Qoms region. Historically, the studied works have been made mainly during the reigns of Al-Buwayh, Seljuk and Ilkhanids. Geographically, the studied area mainly corresponds to the current province of Semnan and the distribution of selected works can be seen in Semnan, Damghan and Shahroud. The number of selected works is 9 historical works and the focus of studies is mainly on the design of brickwork designs and then brickworking techniques and combining brickwork with gemstone tiles and gypsum seals. In addition to the abstract and introduction, the report, list and sources of research include five main chapters as follows:
The first chapter deals with the generalities of the research, which includes stating the problem, goals and questions, as well as the necessity and methodology of the research.
The second chapter of the report deals with the history of bricklaying in Iran in the pre-Islamic period and especially the Islamic period with emphasis on the Middle Ages (4-8 AH).
The third chapter of the report introduces the general examples of research in Qoms region, which includes documenting 9 main buildings, which are scattered from the easternmost point of Semnan province to the city of Semnan in the west.
Chapter 4 is the statistical community analysis report of the documentation. The method of analysis includes recognizing the patterns and techniques of bricklaying and combining bricks with tiles and gypsum seals. Then, in a comparative way, the designs and techniques of the selected works are compared with each other and the relevant results are presented in the form of a table. Also, in order to develop comparative studies, a part of the report compares the execution of Qoms region with works from Iran and finally a geographical zoning map of the brick works of Qoms region is presented.
The fifth chapter or conclusion of the research is dedicated to answering the research questions. The final product of research in this section shows that the evolution of brickwork in Qoms region from the pre-Seljuk period in the fourth century AH with a great variety of techniques and patterns of brickwork as well as the use of pottery inscriptions that most examples in the field Damghan. Brickwork then became simpler in the late Seljuk period and later in the patriarchal period in terms of a variety of techniques and designs, and gradually the use of tiles in the form of jewels (which had already begun) spread. The use of gypsum balls is an example that belongs to the patriarchal period in the Qoms region and has not been seen before.
The subject of the present research is related to the art of brickwork in the architecture of the Middle Ages (specifically the 4th-8th century AH) in the Qoms region. Historically, the studied works have been made mainly during the reigns of Al-Buwayh, Seljuk and Ilkhanids. Geographically, the studied area mainly corresponds to the current province of Semnan and the distribution of selected works can be seen in Semnan, Damghan and Shahroud. The number of selected works is 9 historical works and the focus of studies is mainly on the design of brickwork designs and then brickworking techniques and combining brickwork with gemstone tiles and gypsum seals. In addition to the abstract and introduction, the report, list and sources of research include five main chapters as follows:
The first chapter deals with the generalities of the research, which includes stating the problem, goals and questions, as well as the necessity and methodology of the research.
The second chapter of the report deals with the history of bricklaying in Iran in the pre-Islamic period and especially the Islamic period with emphasis on the Middle Ages (4-8 AH).
The third chapter of the report introduces the general examples of research in Qoms region, which includes documenting 9 main buildings, which are scattered from the easternmost point of Semnan province to the city of Semnan in the west.
Chapter 4 is the statistical community analysis report of the documentation. The method of analysis includes recognizing the patterns and techniques of bricklaying and combining bricks with tiles and gypsum seals. Then, in a comparative way, the designs and techniques of the selected works are compared with each other and the relevant results are presented in the form of a table. Also, in order to develop comparative studies, a part of the report compares the execution of Qoms region with works from Iran and finally a geographical zoning map of the brick works of Qoms region is presented.
The fifth chapter or conclusion of the research is dedicated to answering the research questions. The final product of research in this section shows that the evolution of brickwork in Qoms region from the pre-Seljuk period in the fourth century AH with a great variety of techniques and patterns of brickwork as well as the use of pottery inscriptions that most examples in the field Damghan. Brickwork then became simpler in the late Seljuk period and later in the patriarchal period in terms of a variety of techniques and designs, and gradually the use of tiles in the form of jewels (which had already begun) spread. The use of gypsum balls is an example that belongs to the patriarchal period in the Qoms region and has not been seen before.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Brickwork
  • Qomes
  • Semnan
  • Bricks - tiles
  • architectural decorations
  • the course of historical evolution