اسطوره‌شناسی تمثیلی انسانهای چند عضوی نقش شده در عجایب المخلوقات و غرائب الموجودات (نسخه عربی مصور کتابخانه بوردوفرانسه)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

موسسه آموزش عالی فردوس

10.30508/fhja.2024.2013170.1168

چکیده

چکیده
بیان مساله: کتاب عجایب المخلوقات قزوینی یکی از مهمترین کتابهای عجایب نگاری دوره اسلامی است که محققین را به تکاپو انداخته که ریشه و دلیل نگاره‌های این کتاب چه مواردی است. این تحقیق تلاش می‌کند تا به کمک روش اسطوره‌شناسی تمثیلی کروزر و انجام مراحل پنج‌گانه این روش به بررسی شکل‌گیری موجوداتی عجیب‌الخلقه اساطیری تحت عنوان "چند عضوی‌ها" بپردازد. چنین موجوداتی که شامل موارد گوناگون از آفریده‌هایی با اعضای تکثیر شده بدن می‌باشند که دارای ریشه‌های اسطوره‌شناسی بوده و مطالعه آنها جز در چنین بستری امکان پذیر نمی‌باشد. انسان بدوی که در مسیر رشد فکری و اندیشه به جایگاه نمادین عضو بدن در فرهنگ اساطیری آگاهی یافته است موجوداتی را خلق می‌کند که در تعداد اعضاء بدن دچار تکرار و تکثر شده‌اند و توانایی‌های خارق العاده‌ای را شامل می‌گردند. این مخلوقات شامل موارد متعددی همچون چند چشم، چند دست، چند بدنه و می‌شوند که هر کدام از آنها قدرت‌های خاصی را به صاحبانشان اعطا کرده و به واسطه داشتن چنین قدرت‌های بیکرانی منجر به فراهم شدن زمینه‌ای برای نیل به آرامش انسان همیشه در خطر بدوی به لحاظ روانی می‌شوند
هدف: بررسی اسطوره‌شناسی انسان‌های چندعضوی در کتاب عجایب المخلوقات قزوینی نسخه موجود در کتابخانه بوردو فرانسه به روش پنج‌گانه فردریش کروزر است.
سوال: موجودات چند عضوی و متکثرالاعضاء نقش شده در کتاب عجایب‌ المخلوقات قزوینی ریشه در چه اسطوره‌هایی دارند؟
روش: این پژوهش از نوع بنیادی است و به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی انجام گرفته است.
نتیجه‌گیری: ریشه‌یابی دقیق مکانی و زمانی آفرینش موجودات چند عضوی به علت مشترکات جوامع کهن در بسیاری از رسوم و نقوش غیرممکن می‌نماید که به علت تاثیر و تاثراتی که کشورهای مختلف با ایران داشته‌اند بی شک منجر به تاثیرات زیادی بر هنر در زمینه خلق چنین نمونه‌های اسطوره‌ای شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Allegorical mythology of multi-limbed humans In the wonders of creatures and the wonders of existence Illustrated Arabic version of Bordeaux library))

نویسنده [English]

  • Narges Teymoori
Ferrous Institute of higher education
چکیده [English]

Abstarct
In the early years of Islamic civilization, the wonders of creation and the strangeness of existence were written by Muhammad bin Mahmoud Kamuni Qazvini in Arabic in the 7th century AH. Qazvini's Wonders of Creatures book is one of the most important books on wonders of the Islamic period, which has caused researchers to struggle with the origins and reasons for the illustrations in this book. Strange and wonderful creatures in people's minds are rooted in their ancient beliefs. These imaginations and wonders are full of wonderful folktales with strange illustrations. The book "Ajaib al-Makhluqat wa Ghraib al-Mawsatiyat was written by Zakaria bin Muhammad bin Mahmud Ansari of the Qazvini community in several Persian and Arabic versions in the years after the conquest of Baghdad by the Mongols (656 AH/1258 AD). Due to the large number of copies written over several centuries, this book became the most popular encyclopedia of Islamic Middle Ages in natural history. When copying Qazvini's works, they were often presented with complete diagrams and images. This manuscript consists of a preface and 10 main sections, ending with a chapter on strange creatures. The illustrated Arabic version of the French Bordeaux library, code ms 113, is one of these books that has different chapters and many pictures on natural and strange subjects that Qazvini brought in his book. In this book, he first describes the heavenly world, time and calendar, describes the earth, the four elements, weather, rivers and natural phenomena, in the middle part he describes natural materials and in the final part he describes and narrates extraordinary creatures such as Multi-organ humans has paid. Some of these phenomenal phenomena include a concept, ability, or attribute. A large part of the collection of extraordinary phenomena includes strange creatures. Creatures that we sometimes know as hybrid creatures that include creatures with a strange appearance such as the combination of humans and animals or animals and animals. The meaning of these strange creatures is a group of creatures that cannot be justified from the natural point of view and the normal routine of the world. They include different types and manifestations of these creatures can be seen in all cultures around the world. This research tries to investigate the formation of strange mythological creatures called "multi-organisms" with the help of Crozer's allegorical mythology method and carrying out the five steps of this method. Such beings that include various cases of creatures with multiplied body parts that have mythological roots and their study is not possible except in such a context. Primitive man, who has become aware of the symbolic position of the body part in the mythological culture in the course of his intellectual development, creates beings that have repeated and multiplied the number of body parts and include extraordinary abilities. These creatures include many things such as several eyes, several hands, several bodies, and each of them has granted special powers to their owners, and by having such infinite powers, they lead to the provision of a basis for achieving human peace, always in the danger of being primitive. They are psychological. The question raised in this research is that the multi-organ and multi-organ creatures depicted in the Qazvini Book of Wonders of Creatures are rooted in what myths? This research is of a basic type and has been carried out using a descriptive-analytical method. For example, three images of humans with multiple hands, multiple legs, and multiple heads and bodies have been selected from the final part of Qazvini's Wonders of Creatures. It is impossible to find the exact spatial and temporal roots of the creation of multi-membered creatures due to the commonality of ancient societies in many customs and motifs, which, due to the influence and impressions that different countries have had with Iran, has undoubtedly led to many effects on art in the field of creating such mythical examples. Since the beginning of creation, the human being on earth has been searching for facilities and conditions to guide his searching soul to the truth and shelter his weak body. His fears, lacks, shortcomings and hopes lead him to meditate on the world around him in order to reach the only desire of his heart, which is to reach peace under the shelter of thoughtful achievements, and in the shadow of such circumstances, to convince his questioning mind. In this path, creativity and thinking come together, and in a bed as vast as a myth, symbols emerge that provide him with the possibility of a better life, with goals in line with continuous growth. People, places, objects, mythical materials and especially multi-membered creatures adorn him with power to prepare the human psyche for the complex path of communication with the environment on the one hand and on the other hand for his life process in the position of a real conceptual questioning human being. Give logical and solid.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: strange creatures
  • multi-limbed humans
  • allegorical mythology
  • multi-headed
  • multi-legged
  • multi-handed