عنوان مقاله [English]
Statement of Problem: Privacy is one of the most important features of a desirable home and one of the basic needs of people in a residential space and means a process during which a person achieves regulation of how he interacts with others and experiences self-esteem. The comfort of the family and the possibility of proper communication of its members with each other and even with other relatives, requires privacy in housing; Because housing means a place where peace and tranquility flow, requires a kind of solitude. Due to the fact that human beings need spaces with individual privacy and collective solitude, so it is necessary for a number of spaces to provide individual privacy and bring peace to human beings, and a number of spaces also provide collective privacy for communication and interaction with other family members.
Importance and necessity of conducting research: If both individual and collective privacy are not considered at the same time, human needs will not be fully met and the home space will become an inefficient environment. Therefore, it is necessary to know and study how to achieve the range of privacy in successful examples and use them to create a balance between individual and collective privacy.
Aims of the article: The purpose of this article is to identify the range of privacy in residential space and to study and compare comparative individual to collective privacy in traditional and contemporary housing.
Research Question: In order to achieve the objectives of the research, the following questions are asked: What range of privacy is needed in a residential space to meet human needs? How is individual to collective solitude realized in traditional and contemporary homes?
Research Method: According to the subject, the present research is practical in nature and qualitative in terms of method. In the first step, it has been used through library and documentary studies to reach the theoretical foundations and study the research background. The authors first traced the lexical roots of housing and privacy and examined the theories related to each, then analyzed the content of the concept of privacy in housing and obtained a conceptual model of the research. In the second step, through field studies, case studies are examined and the realization of individual privacy and collective privacy in a sample of two groups of traditional houses (Darogheh house) and contemporary Iranian houses (father and daughter house). Has been studied. In the third step, through inferential analysis, privacy is compared in case samples and the obtained data are classified and presented in a table.
Conclusion: In the first step of this study, the spectrum of privacy in traditional and contemporary residential space has been studied and the findings show: on one side of the spectrum of privacy, individual privacy and on the other hand, collective privacy. While both belong to the same nature. Paying attention to one aspect of privacy alone creates spaces in which family members will either lose their privacy due to the lack of individual privacy or due to the lack of collective privacy necessary for social interactions and They do not have to be together. According to the issues raised in traditional houses, each member of the family was not assigned a private room, and due to the way the space was designed, the number of openings and entrances in each room was high, and this reduced and eliminated Going into solitude is personal; Also, in contemporary houses, with the disappearance of some spaces and also the personalization of spaces, collective solitude is eliminated and there is no tendency to gather together in a collective space. In the next step, through field studies, case studies (drug house and father and daughter house) are examined and the realization of individual and collective privacy in a sample of two groups of traditional houses and contemporary houses in Iran is studied. Is located. Analyzes show in the case study of a traditional house (drug house); The crypt has too much solitude, which leads to isolation, loneliness and boredom in this space; The kitchen and bathroom have a personal privacy that creates a personal space and a specific territory; The mezzanine, the winter solstice, the windbreak, and the window sill have a collective privacy that promotes interpersonal relationships with other family members and self-evaluation among others; The vestibule and the front have lost privacy, which creates a sense of congestion, aggression, and encroachment on the privacy of others. In the case of a contemporary house (father and daughter house); The warehouse has more privacy than needed, which leads to isolation, loneliness and boredom; The bedroom, the parents' room, and the bathroom have individual privacy that creates a border-area, personal independence, and personal space; The courtyard, kitchen and reception have a collective privacy that expands relationships with other family members; The hallway and the entrance filter have lost privacy, which causes congestion, encroachment and invasion on the privacy of family members.