عنوان مقاله [English]
Statement of the problem: The Timurid period is one of the brilliant periods of Islamic art and architecture. In this period, significant progress is made in various fields of architectural decoration. The way of decorating with mosaic tiles in the Timurid period shows that the artists of this period had achieved the highest level of skill in decorations. Decorations in this period have undergone a fundamental change under several factors. Timurid architecture achieved a solid and complete structure and principles by using Ilkhanate and Seljuk architecture and using Iranian architects and artists, and the buildings left from this period have these characteristics, including: greatness, progress In all kinds of decorations, they show growth and excellence in arching techniques and cross arches. If we list Timurid buildings in terms of their artistic importance, strength and fame, the first place is occupied by mosques, followed by schools, monasteries, shrines, etc. The mosque is one of the buildings that has always been of interest and importance throughout the history of Iranian architecture and was welcomed by many architects and artists during the Timurid period. The art, culture, and literature of the Timurid period have registered two magnificent mosques in their record. Two mosques with the same name, which were built by the order of one person (Goharshad Khatun) and with the architecture of a master craftsman. One of these two complexes is located in Mashhad and the other is in Herat, and both mosques are very magnificent and magnificent, and each of them has differences in motifs.
Purpose: One of the main purposes of this research is to compare the decorations of the Timurid period, including the decorative lines, motifs and colors used in the tiling of case examples (Goharshad mosques in Mashhad and Herat).
Research question: What are the similarities and differences between Goharshad and Herat mosques, which were built by the same person during the period?
Research method: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted and the required data and data were collected through library-documentary studies.
Conclusion: The results of this study show that the powerful juxtaposition of plant motifs and geometric motifs is one of the characteristics that started in this period. Also, the architecture of the Timurid period can be considered the peak of the use of color in architecture, which can be seen in the Kufic and Thulet manuscripts in golden inscriptions on blue tiles. It seems that the motifs worked in Herat's Goharshad Mosque are more developed than Mashhad's Goharshad. Perhaps the reason for this is the construction of the Herat Mosque after Mashhad and Herat being the capital during the Timurid period. Also, in the Goharshad Mosque of Mashhad, color has the greatest impact on the viewer and everyone who enters the mosque admires its wonder. The contrast of complementary colors can be seen in the tiles, in the inscriptions and in the motifs. Regarding the used script, which is considered a kind of pattern, the lines of Tholt, Nastaliq and Kufi are common in both mosques, but the beauty of the Nastaliq script in the Goharshad Mosque of Mashhad can be clearly shown. It seems that due to the wide spread of architecture in the Timurid period and the distance between Goharshad Mosque in Mashhad and Goharshad in Herat, the difference in climate and to some extent cultural issues and ethnic characteristics, we should witness more differences than what we see in these two. Mosques with the studies and investigations done, due to the religious participation in this region which can be a determining factor, not only there is no significant difference, but there is a kind of unity and coherence in the plans and roles. What is interesting among the inscriptions is the existence of an inscription in Persian language in Herat's Goharshad Mosque, which cannot be seen in Mashhad. Perhaps the reason for this can be considered the greater literacy of the people of Herat than the people of Khorasan at that time and the presence of literate and well-known people like Jami. What is important in these two mosques is the independence of the decorations in them, which do not follow the main lines because of the past, and the decorations have made both buildings unified as a complete unit.