نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 پژوهش هنر/فردوس مشهد/ایران
2 دانشآموخته دکتری، مدرس مدعو، گروه هنر، مؤسسه آموزش عالی فردوس، مشهد، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
From the era of the Ilkhans, the first illustrated version of the Shahnameh was produced, and Ferdowsi's poems became a suitable background for illustration. Even though the picture "Meeting of Ardeshir and Gulnar" in Shahnameh Baisangari and Tahmasabi is inspired by Ferdowsi's poems, which is the same in both versions, but the pictures have different aspects that are important due to the changes in visual expression.
The current research aims to analyze the transformations of writers' depictions and wants to reveal the depth of story construction. Therefore, it addresses the question of how writers have depicted the story based on Propp's theory. The method of analysis in this research is qualitative and the structuralism approach is used based on Propp's theory. Information is collected by the library method and the tool of sampling and observation The results of this research show that both pictures undergo a structural transformation in matching with the story. In this matter, reasons such as being influenced by political, military, social and religious norms, as well as the ideological conditions governing the time and context, and the personal beliefs of the kings as clients and schools governing painting have been effective. This indicates a kind of internal transformation, such as the fact that the painter, by removing the climax of the story and choosing a one-sided and secret love scene by Gulnar, caused this painting to be confused with other love stories such as the meeting of Zal and Rudaba.
. Substituting the Mongolian faces of Zal and Rudabah with Timurid and Safavid period clothes instead of the usual clothes in the story and reducing the beauty of Glenarake has more of a reform and updating aspect in both versions, it has caused external transformation and the addition of the character of Shah Tahmasb and the Quranic verse on the Negara palace. It has caused external transformation in Tahmasabi's version.
In the meantime, it is important to analyze the constant pattern in the Shahnameh presented in the form of early poems and the changes made in its visual expression in the two Ha'er versions, and the concept of transformation in the perspective of structuralism is suitable as a theory for examining these transformations.Based on structuralism, every visual representation is continuous and has a time sequence, has a common basis and changes over time, due to various reasons. In other words, if, as a default, Ferdowsi's narratives are compared to a room,It has a single structure and a fixed plan, which must remain unchanged and transformed in all periods and after the transition to painting, and if there is any change, it should only be done in external and composition-oriented factors such as arrangement or coloring as room furniture. so as not to harm the origin and structure of the stories.Thus, the internal factors of stories must always remain the same in different versions. However, the stories of the Shahnameh have been changed in the writers of different editions under the influence of political, military, social and religious norms, such as the ideological conditions governing the time and context, and the personal beliefs of the kings as the main commissioners of the Shahnameh, and even the personal interest and style of the writers.The performance of illustrators in illustrating the stories according to their understanding of the stories of the Shahnameh, like translation, is one of the methods of re-creation, which depends on the quality of the intervention and change of the illustrators in creating an effective transformation.The current research aims to analyze and compare the transformations of the two images' depiction, and wants to reveal the depth of the story. Therefore, it raises the question of how the Timurid and Safavid painters, relying on the theory of transformation, depicted the love story of Ardeshir and Gulnar.Also, this research analyzes the performance of painters in the occurrence of transformations, including the internal (main structure and system) and external (characters, landscapes, and spaces) components of the narrative line.The two versions of the painting "Meeting of Ardeshir and Gulnar" in the Shahnameh of Baisangari and Tahmasbi, which describes the love affair between Ardeshir and Gulnar, are read and interpreted in a combination between the minds of the artist and the audience. In this two-way relationship, the presence of the main author of the story is felt, and the painter and the audience are the borrowers of his fundamental thought as the author of the story, who are centuries away from the author in terms of time and place, and consequently, in terms of the ideological conditions of the time and context. .