عنوان مقاله [English]
Statement of the problem: After the arrival of the lithography industry in Iran (1249 AH) under the support of Abbas Mirza Naib al-Sultaneh, a huge transformation took place in the field of illustration, as many artists produced extensive works in this field. At the beginning, how the lithography method works to produce illustrated versions was not very easy for artists, but over time, the artists, by gaining various experiences in this field, succeeded in producing noteworthy images, among them, Seyyed al-Shaara is one of the unknown artists. In the field of illustrations of stone printing books, only one of his works entitled Bahr al-Fawaed (Mathematical Principles) (published: 1324 AH) remains. There is not much information about this artist's life and artistic profile, but his illustrations indicate his mastery of design and composition skills. One of the issues that distinguishes the works of these artists from other available lithography works is the high quality of the images and masterful performance of this artist, because during his artistic career, most of the lithography works had declined in terms of quality and The images are simpler and more primitive compared to the beginning of the activity of the lithographic illustrators. For this reason, it is very important to examine and study the works left by this prolific but unknown artist.
The aim of the research is to investigate the way of emergence and perspective features in the illustrations of Bahr al-Fawaed book by Seyyed al-Shaara.
Research method: In the current research, 16 narrative images of Bahr al-Fayed have been analyzed in a descriptive-analytical way.
Conclusion: According to the case study of Seyyed al-Shaara's illustrations in the book Bahr al-Fawaed, it can be found that this artist did not completely follow the deep-viewing methods of Iranian art and western linear methods, but in each picture, depending on the conditions and purpose, he used a self-made method to create depth. adopted in the image. Most likely, one of the possible reasons was the limitations of the stone printing technique. For example, in lithography, due to the removal of color and reliance on line, the artist is deprived of the possibility of creating a distinction and a point of attention with the help of color or strong light and shadows. As a result, it is possible that Seyyed al-Shaara has made exceptions in the perspective type of images due to the limitation of visual elements. In some cases, according to the common custom of Iranian art, when important people are drawn with magnification (spatial perspective), Seyyed al-Shaara has also used this method to draw war commanders in most cases. Of course, in the case of this artist's pictures, the purpose of the official perspective is not only to respect the status of individuals, and this method has also played the role of creating balance in the crowded compositions of Seyyed al-Shaara's works. However, in a special case like picture 14, despite the presence of Napoleon, who is a prominent figure, he has been depicted with very small proportions. There is a possibility that Napoleon in this image as a person who will fail, did not need magnification and official perspective. In some of the images, the people and equipment that were present in the distance are depicted with brief lines without details, which is reminiscent of the atmospheric perspective method. has not had, it should be noted that the limitation in the implementation of design details in much smaller scales than the common sizes in lithography could have been the reason for this problem in more distant parts. In some images such as image 6, it seems that the artist has not made a conscious and deliberate effort to create and design the principles and organization in depth, and has changed the sizes and distance and proximity of the elements with the sole purpose of filling the image and showing different events of the battle. In general, it can be said that Seyyed al-Shaara in Bahr al-Fawaed's illustrations shows a combination of Iranian and Western depth-viewing methods, although not in a purposeful way, but simply to create enough space for the characters and to achieve a balanced composition, the elements are drawn small or large. has done.