عنوان مقاله [English]
Engraving on silver is one of the branches of art and metalworking. This art is considered to be the most prominent branch of metalworking art in Tabriz and is also known as Tabriz style engraving among silver artists. In the silver art of Tabriz, the technique of engraving the surface of silver metal is used. Artists in the classification of various metalworking techniques refer to engraving and carving as a sub-branch of the art of engraving. However, there is a big difference between engraving and chasing in terms of execution technique. In Isfahan chasing, there is a lot of variety of pens, but the number of pens in the art of engraving on silver is 4, and the artist makes the pens himself. The artist uses a pen and hammer to place the tip of the pen on the metal surface, and the artist removes chips from the metal surface with the sharpness of the pens, using the force of his hand, without the use of a hammer.
The most important factor in the formation of Tabriz silver engraving was the presence of Armenian metalworkers in Iran. A group of metalworkers living in Van, Turkey, migrated to Iran from the northwest, first in Jolfa and then gradually to Tabriz and the central cities of Iran. Among them were a number of silversmiths. By living in the city of Tabriz, these people followed their previous profession and art and raised many people. Influenced by Iranian culture and art, Iranian-Armenian artists have taken common creative genres from Iranians and organized new artistic ideas. The history of the Armenians is so intertwined with the culture of modernity and prosperity of Iran that the study of the passage from the traditional world to the contemporary world is not without mentioning the names of a number of them. In various fields, because this lineage of Iranians had closer relations with the West due to their religious closeness to the Europeans, they made it possible to transfer different cultures, arts and sciences to Iran. But what made this art flourish in the region of Azerbaijan was the public acceptance of the art of carving Armenian silver.
Thus the core of the art of engraving on silver metal was formed by Armenian immigrant artists. Of course, it is necessary to mention that many Armenians had settled in Tabriz before this date. The purpose of this article, after introducing engraving on silver, is to identify the evolution of form and the common role in engraving on silver in Tabriz. The main questions of this research are: What has changed in the art of making and decorating the art of silver engraving during this hundred years? What is the history of using motifs in the art of engraving? The nature of this research is based on descriptive-analytical method and the method of collecting information is library and field. In the field method, by referring to Tabriz silver engraving workshops, visiting the Qajar Museum and personal collectors, interviewing artists and experts, and taking photos of existing samples (old and new) to collect The information was collected and then the collected information was examined and analyzed in terms of shape, role, construction and decoration techniques. The statistical population of this research has been selected from 22 works engraved on Tabriz silver during the last one hundred years. The method of analysis is also qualitative. Finally, the results of the research show that silverwork has changed its use in form after its expansion in Iran. The works of Armenian artists have had special motifs and techniques from the beginning, and over time, there have been changes in its decoration and motifs. Thus, in the historical study, considering that about 100 years have passed since the migration of Armenians and the development of this branch of metalworking in Tabriz, the art of Armenian metalworking can be divided into earlier works (first 50 years) and later works (second 50 years). ) The basic forms of tea utensils were such as cup holder, teapot, tray, sugar and various cigarette boxes. But in later periods, depending on the lifestyle and tastes of the audience, different forms of dishes have been used. Attention to the economic discussion in the collection of silver objects and luxury were the factors that expanded the form of silver vessels.
The roots of silver engraving motifs in the first 50 years after the migration of artists were influenced by common motifs in Armenian art and Iranian metalwork motifs in the first millennium BC and marginal motifs in the metalwork art of the Islamic period. In the second 50 years after the establishment of silversmithing in the city of Tabriz, its form and designs have been influenced by the metalworking art of previous periods and the social and cultural indicators in the society.